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Petroleum Refining one zero one

What is a barrel Hydrogen Peroxide Equipment of Crude? Main atomic building blocks. Carbon eighty four to 87 wt … Fluid Cat Cracker (FCC) Thermal Cracking. Coking. Hydrocracking. Modifying … – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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  • Binder / Mixture Subcommittee Assembly
  • Boise, ID
  • October 4, 2005
  • Petroleum Refining –
  • Process by which impurities are faraway from

crude oil to provide asphalt.
– (Warning The remainder of this presentation
will primarily deal with the processing of crude
oil impurities / contaminants)

  • Historical past of Refining
  • What is Crude Oil?
  • Characteristics of the money makers
  • – Gasoline Diesel
  • Chemical Processes
  • – Catalysts
  • Propane Deasphalting (PDA)

– Fashionable Historical past of Petroleum Refining

  • 1859 Drakes Oil Well Discovery
  • 1860 First Refinery (80 Barrels per Day)
  • 1900 Electricity and the Auto
  • 1920 Thermal Cracking Lubric

ants First Continuous Distillation
Course of
– 1940 WWII Catalytic Cracking,

  • 1950 Reforming
  • 1960 Hydrocracking
  • 1970 Fluidized Cat Cracking
  • 1980 Environmental Enhancements
  • Present Refinement Optimization of

Course of Power Recovery

  • One Barrel 42 Gallons
  • Hydrocarbons present in crude might be broken down

into three basic classes

  • Paraffins – saturated hydrocarbons
  • Naphthenes – cycloparaffins
  • Aromatics – containing one or more benzene rings
  • Boiling Vary
  • 70 deg F to 1200 deg F
  • Olefins – not naturally occurring in crude,

formed during processing

– What is a barrel of Crude?

  • Major atomic building blocks
  • Carbon 84 to 87 wt
  • Hydrogen eleven to 14 wt
  • Sulfur zero to 6 wt
  • Nitrogen 0 to 0.5 wt
  • Impurities
  • Water
  • Sediment
  • Salts
  • Metals
  • Nitrogen
  • General Traits
  • Density (API Gravity)
  • Gentle 38 to forty five Degrees API Gravity
  • Medium 28 to 38 Levels API
  • Heavy 12 to 28 Levels API
  • Sulfur
  • Sweet zero.1 to zero.5 wt
  • Semi-Candy 0.5 to zero.8wt

– Specification

– The power obtained from a standard
reciprocating gasoline engine is restricted by two
distinct kinds of abnormal combustion known as
knock and rumble. When the gas-air mixture in
the cylinder of a spark-ignition engine burns
spontaneously in localized areas as a substitute of
progressing from the spark, this explosive
decomposition pro-duces a characteristic noise or
knock. Rumble, on the other hand, is brought on by
a number of pre-ignitions of the gasoline-air mixture
during the compression stroke and can be
recognized by a characteristic noise generally
referred to as wild ping. In each cases, the
accompanying pressure surge cannot be converted
into mechanical work by the piston, which should
move in a set time / place relationship, and
is lost as heat to the engine cooling system and
exhaust gasoline. Along with lack of energy and
fuel economic system, knocking can result in engine
damage and may burn a hole in the piston. For
these causes, the antiknock quality of gasoline
is considered one of their most vital properties.
– The antiknock quality of motor gasoline is
usually expressed when it comes to octane number.
The take a look at gas is in comparison with blends of two pure
hydrocarbons, n-heptane and isooctane. N-heptane
is quite low in its resistance to knock and has
been arbitrarily assigned an octane worth of
zero. Isooctane has good antiknock properties
and has therefore been assigned a price of a hundred.