Petroleum merchandise are materials derived from crude oil (petroleum) as it’s processed in oil refineries. Unlike petrochemicals, which are a set of well-defined normally pure chemical compounds, petroleum merchandise are advanced mixtures. Nearly all of petroleum is converted to petroleum products, which incorporates several lessons of fuels.
In keeping with the composition of the crude oil and relying on the calls for of the market, refineries can produce different shares of petroleum merchandise. The most important share of oil products is used as “power carriers”, i.e. numerous grades of gas oil and gasoline. These fuels include or can be blended to provide gasoline, jet gasoline, diesel fuel, heating oil, and heavier gas oils. Heavier (much less volatile) fractions will also be used to supply asphalt, tar, paraffin wax, lubricating and other heavy oils. Refineries also produce other chemicals, some of that are used in chemical processes to supply plastics and other useful supplies. Since petroleum typically incorporates a few % sulfur-containing molecules, elemental sulfur is also typically produced as a petroleum product. Carbon, within the form of petroleum coke, and hydrogen may even be produced as petroleum merchandise. The hydrogen produced is commonly used as an intermediate product for other oil refinery processes similar to hydrocracking and hydrodesulfurization.
1 Specialty and products
2 Petroleum by-products
Specialty and products
Oil refineries will mix various feedstocks, combine applicable additives, provide quick time period storage, and prepare for bulk loading to trucks, barges, product ships, and railcars.
– Gaseous fuels similar to propane, saved and shipped in liquid type beneath stress in specialized railcars to distributors.
– Liquid fuels blending (producing automotive and aviation grades of gasoline, kerosene, numerous aviation turbine fuels, and diesel fuels, including dyes, detergents, antiknock additives, oxygenates, and anti-fungal compounds as required). Shipped by barge, rail, and tanker ship. May be shipped regionally in devoted pipelines to point shoppers, significantly aviation jet gasoline to main airports, or piped to distributors in multi-product pipelines using product separators called pipeline inspection gauges (“pigs”).
Lubricants (produces gentle machine oils, motor oils, and greases, adding viscosity stabilizers as required), normally shipped in bulk to an offsite packaging plant.
Paraffin wax, used within the packaging of frozen foods, among others. Could also be shipped in bulk to a site to arrange as packaged blocks.
Slack wax, a uncooked refinery output comprising a mixture of oil and wax used as a precursor for scale wax and paraffin wax and as-is in non-food merchandise similar to wax emulsions, development board, matches, candles, rust safety, and vapor barriers.
Sulfur, byproduct of sulfur removal from petroleum, which contain % of organosulfur compounds.
– Bulk tar transport for offsite unit packaging to be used in tar-and-gravel roofing or related uses.
Asphalt – used as a binder for gravel to type asphalt concrete, which is used for paving roads, lots, and so on. An asphalt unit prepares bulk asphalt for shipment.
Petroleum coke, utilized in specialty carbon merchandise corresponding to certain forms of electrodes, or as strong gas.
Petrochemicals or petrochemical feedstocks. Petrochemical are organic compounds which are the elements for the chemical business, starting from polymers and pharmaceuticals. Representative petrochemicals are ethylene and benzene-toluene-xylenes (“BTX”).
Over 6,000 objects are made from petroleum waste by-merchandise together with: fertilizer, ground coverings, perfume, insecticide, petroleum jelly, cleaning soap, vitamin capsules. See hyperlink to partial checklist of 144 by-products listed by Ranken Power 
Sample of Crude oil (petroleum)
Cylinders of Liquified petroleum gas
Sample of Gasoline
Sample of Kerosene
Pattern of Diesel gasoline
Pile of asphalt-coated aggregate for formation into asphalt concrete
^ Walther W. Irion, Otto S. Neuwirth, “Oil Refining” in Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2005, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim.
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