Oil 101 – Introduction To Refining
In this episode of the Oil one hundred and one podcast series, we’ll focus on the basics of the refining perform of Downstream oil and fuel. Upstream is all concerning the wells, but oil must be processed to succeed in its full potential.
On this 7-minute podcast, we will discuss:
– Why will we refine crude oil
– The refining distillation process
– History of refining
Listen to Refining 101 beneath:
Oil one zero one – A Free Introduction to Oil and Gas
Podcast: Introduction to Downstream
Article: Upstream vs Downstream
EIA Energy Mapping System
Immediately we can be drilling deeper into Downstream oil and gasoline segments, starting with refining. We ll make certain to put the hyperlink to the Downstream Overview in the program notes in case you missed it or just want a overview since it s been a while.
[Study extra about the difference between upstream and downstream.]
Moreover, the yield of merchandise from straight distillation of crude oil shouldn’t be the same oil api rating because the demand barrel needed for the marketplace. Crude oil must subsequently be additional processed utilizing each heat and pressure to improve qualities and meet market demand.
Distillation A Boiling Course of
Crude oil is first washed to take away salt, heated in a furnace, and introduced to the Crude Distillation Unit (known as a CDU). In this tower, the crude oil is separated by boiling range into various fractions.
A fraction is the time period used for a selected hydrocarbon which is produced and captured in line with its molecular weight and boiling point. Some fractions from the distillation process have all of the qualities wanted as refined merchandise and are ready on the market. Others require additional processing earlier than they are sold to clients.
The lightest fractions, like liquid petroleum gas (or LPG), are boiled off the crude at the lowest temperature of 150º F.
The second fraction boiled off is kerosene or distillates which happens at 450º F.
Subsequent is gas oil which is an intermediate fraction that requires additional processing within the plant with temperatures reaching 750º F.
The earliest petroleum refineries in the 1880 s have been really little more than stills oil api rating – like those to make moonshine alcohol in the previous movies! They have been designed to extract each kerosene from crude oil to be used as lamp oil and petroleum grease, which at the time was exported all over the world from the US. Whatever products remained, together with gasoline, was handled as waste.
The appearance of the internal combustion engine and the subsequent explosion in automotive transport changed all the things. By the early 1920 s the vehicle and airplane were firmly established as main modes of transportation in the developed economies. This progress compelled global refiners to expand.