In 2017 The Ineos Refining Enterprise

Patent-oriented sieve trayGrangemouth Refinery is a mature oil refinery complicated located on the Firth of Forth in Grangemouth, Scotland. Presently operated by Petroineos, it’s the only crude oil refinery in Scotland (and will probably be the only operating oil refinery following the cessation of refining activities at the Dundee Refinery[1]) and at the moment certainly one of six within the UK. It is reputedly the UK’s second-oldest refinery, and it supplies refined merchandise to clients in Scotland, northern England and Northern Eire, in addition to occasionally further afield.

1 History 1.1 Location
1.2 Simple Refinery: 1924-1939
1.3 Petrochemical advanced: 1946-1975
1.4 North Sea Oil: 1975-2004
1.5 Publish-BP Period: 2004-present


Grangemouth Refinery commenced operation in 1924 as Scottish Oils. Its location at Grangemouth was chosen because of the adjoining Grangemouth Docks which supported the import by ship of Center East crude oils for feedstock, plus the cheap availability of large areas of reclaimed flat land. Another essential issue was the ample availability of expert labour in shale oil refining: the primary oil works on the earth, ‘Younger’s Paraffin Gentle and Mineral Oil Company Limited’, had opened in 1851 at Boghead close to Bathgate, to provide oil from shale or coal utilizing the process patented in 1850 by Glasgow scientist Dr James Young (known as “Paraffin” Young), for “treating bituminous coals to obtain paraffine therefrom”.

With the world’s first oil wells coming on-line in 1859 in Pennsylvania in the USA, the worldwide worth of oil dropped and plenty of Scottish shale oil works grew to become un-economical and had to both shut or concentrate manufacturing on different materials. By 1910 solely 5 major Scottish shale oil firms remained, fighting to stay competitive against cheaper imported American oil. Throughout the primary World Warfare the British government helped to develop new fields in Arabia to provide cheap oil to sustain the conflict effort. This drove costs even lower to a degree where the shale oil trade was unable to compete, and as a lead to 1919 the six surviving firms (including Youngs) came collectively under the administration of the newly formed Scottish Oils. That same 12 months Scottish Oils was purchased by the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, a forerunner of the British Petroleum Company (later generally known as BP)

Easy Refinery: 1924-1939[edit]

The Refinery operated from 1924 to 1939 at a throughput of 360,000 tonnes per yr. It was then forced to shut down between 1939 and 1946 by World Battle II and the ensuing drying up of crude feedstock imports. When operations recommenced in 1946, the refinery underwent a variety of main enlargement programmes.

Petrochemical complex: 1946-1975[edit]

In the 1940s the Distiller’s Firm Ltd have been investigating artificial processes for the manufacturing of alcohol, to replace the traditional fermentation process utilizing molasses and so resolve issues with unreliability of supply and the associated price fluctuations. This business need mixed with BP’s interest in petrochemical growth resulted in 1947 in the formation of a joint firm, British Hydrocarbon Chemicals Ltd. The new company situated its site adjoining the present BP Grangemouth Refinery, utilising available feedstock from the refinery byproduct streams. This petrochemical plant was commissioned in 1951, the primary in Europe.

In the 1950s the refinery was related to the Finnart Oil Terminal at Loch Lengthy on the west coast of Scotland by a fifty eight-mile (93 km) pipeline, to allow the import of crudes via deep-water jetty, which supported using larger oil tankers. The primary crude oil import from Finnart was in 1952.

Later on in the century a second line was additionally put in to allow the direct provide of finished refinery merchandise to the Finnart terminal, primarily for export to markets in Northern Ireland and the republic.

In the 1960s, a pilot “proteins-from-oil” manufacturing facility was constructed at the refinery. It used British Petroleum’s know-how for feeding n-paraffins to yeast, so as to supply single cell protein for poultry and cattle feed.[2]

BP’s operations at Grangemouth grew over the next twenty years to meet the growing demands for both petrochemicals and fuels.

North Sea Oil: 1975-2004[edit]

In 1975 the discovery of North Sea Oil brought the commissioning of the Kinneil Crude Oil Stabilisation terminal, which linked immediately into the INEOS Forties pipeline system; this plant serves to stabilise Forties Crude oil for both export to third parties or feeding into the refinery, and allowed the processing of North Sea oil as part of the refinery crude ‘slate’ of feedstocks.

Publish-BP Interval: 2004-present[edit]

In 2004 BP decided to divest its worldwide olefins and derivatives business: the sale included the Refinery and linked petrochemicals advanced (excluding the Kinneil terminal, which BP retains). In 2005 the new firm created to run this enterprise was named Innovene, and later that year it was bought by Ineos, a privately owned UK-based chemicals firm.

In 2011 the Ineos Refining business, which included both the Grangemouth and Lavera (outdoors Marseilles, France) Refineries, entered right into a 50%/50% joint enterprise with the Chinese language state oil company Petrochina, to form the PetroIneos firm.

Grangemouth Refinery at this time employs over 1300 people over a seven hundred hectare site.

Scenes from the 2013 movie World Warfare Z featuring Brad Pitt have been filmed near the ability.[Three][four][5]


The Grangemouth Refinery is a serious landmark, with its quite a few gasoline flares and cooling towers visible across a large area of the Scottish Lowlands.

The refinery has a ‘nameplate’ capability for processing 210,000 barrels (33,000 m3) of crude oil every day. It at the moment employs about 1,200 permanent employees, and an additional 1,000 contractors.

It processed approximately 400,000 tonnes of imported crude oil yearly till the end of the Second World War, and subsequent expansion programmes have elevated refining capacity to an excess of 10 million tonnes per year.[6]

The INEOS-owned North Sea Forties pipeline system terminates on the Kinneil processing facility, and surplus crude is exported through pipeline to the Dalmeny tank farm, and subsequently shipped out from the Hound Level marine terminal onto oil tankers of up to 350,000 D.W.T. which are in a position to navigate the shallow water of the Forth.

Annual output share[edit]

Petrol – 22%
Diesel – 24%
Kerosene & Jet fuel – 13%
Gasoline oil – 8%
– Fuel oil – 15%
LPG/petrochemical feedstocks – 12%
Gas fuel/other – 6%
Waste – 1%

Security file[edit]

One of many refinery’s largest accidents happened at 7am on Sunday 22 March 1987 when the HydroCracker Unit exploded. The resulting vibrations and noise might be heard up to 30 km away. The resulting hearth burned for a lot of the day. One worker was killed.[7] Simply 9 days earlier on the 13 March, one other incident occurred involving the refinery flare line, the resulting fireball killed two staff.[Eight]

In 2002, BP the earlier house owners of the plant, were fined £1m for breaching security legal guidelines throughout a series of incidents which occurred in 2000.[9]

Ineos went to court docket in April 2008 over claims that it had polluted the River Forth in mid-2007.[10]

Ineos industrial disputes[edit]

In 2008, Ineos proposed that plant employees start contributing a share towards their very own pensions (a ultimate salary pension scheme[11]), as a substitute of the prevailing non-contributory fastened wage pensions. The request would have obliged future new entry employees to pay 6% of their salary, phased in over a six-year interval. Ninety seven% of the Unite trade union’s 1,250 members at Grangemouth voted in favour of strike motion. David Watt, of the Institute of Directors in Scotland, acknowledged that the common Grangemouth Refinery plant worker earns £40,000 per yr (nearly twice the Scottish common.)[12] This was disputed by the Deputy General Secretary of the Scottish Trades Union Congress, Dave Moxham, who acknowledged that they earn £30,000 per year.[Eleven]

The strike began on 27 April 2008, and lasted till 29 April.[Thirteen] The petrol provide of Scotland was affected by the strike, as panic buying led some petrol stations throughout the country to run dry.[14] The Retail Motor Industry Federation said that there was a stock of fuel that could final 70 days, easily covering the lapse in production so long as no panic buying occurred.[15] With the shutdown of the plant, BP closed the Forties pipeline system as their Kinneil terminal depends on power from the Grangemouth refinery.[16] With the shutdown of Kinneil, 70 North Sea oil platforms were forced to shut down or reduce manufacturing, at the cost of seven hundred,000 barrels per day (a hundred and ten,000 m3/d).[Sixteen] Shutting the pipeline down reduced Britain’s petroleum supply (the Forties pipeline provides 30% of the UK’s North Sea oil), and price the UK financial system £50 million in lost manufacturing day-after-day it remained closed.[17]

There was further industrial motion in 2013. Ineos acknowledged that the plant was making losses, and offered a survival plan requiring staff to simply accept worse employment terms, particularly on pensions, which the staff rejected.[18][19] Ineos stated in October 2013 that the petrochemical works would close.[20][21] Following negotiations led by Scottish Finance Secretary John Swinney and Scottish Secretary Alistair Carmichael, on 24 October the unions accepted a survival plan put ahead from the management of the plant.[22] On 25 October 2013, it was announced the plant will keep open and Unite had agreed to taking no strike motion for three years, transferring to a new pension scheme and accepting a 3-12 months pay freeze.[23]

2009 Jaipur fireplace
Esso Refinery, Milford Haven
2005 Hertfordshire Oil Storage Terminal fire

^ Bamberg, J. H. (2000). British Petroleum and world oil, 1950-1975: the problem of nationalism. Volume three of British Petroleum and Global Oil 1950-1975: The Challenge of Nationalism, J. H. Bamberg British Petroleum sequence. Cambridge University Press. pp. 426-428. ISBN zero-521-78515-4.
^ UKPIA – Overview of Grangemouth Facility Archived 2008-04-25 on the Wayback Machine.
^ The Hydrocracker Explosion and Hearth at BP Oil, Grangemouth Refinery. 22 March 1987
^ “BP fined £1m for safety offences”. BBC News. 18 January 2002. Retrieved four Could 2010.
^ “Courtroom motion for refinery bosses”. BBC Information. 22 April Synthetic Rubber Equipment 2008. Retrieved 4 Could 2010.
^ a b “Workers left with no alternative”. BBC News. 23 April 2008. Retrieved four Might 2010.
^ “‘Be realistic’ name to petrol employees”. BBC Information. 22 April 2008. Retrieved 4 Could 2010.
^ “Deal might finish refinery dispute”. BBC Information. 29 April 2008. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
^ “The petrol picture in Scotland”. BBC News. 25 April 2008. Retrieved four May 2010.
^ “Q&A: The Grangemouth dispute”. BBC News. 28 April 2008. Retrieved 4 Could 2010.
^ a b “Opec warns oil may attain $200”. BBC News. 28 April 2008. Retrieved 4 Could 2010.
^ “‘Weeks’ to re-start strike plant”. BBC News. 26 April 2008. Retrieved 4 Could 2010.
^ Anthony Clark (17 October 2013). “Unite accuses Ineos of ‘fancy accounting’ over Grangemouth”. Plastics & Rubber Weekly. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
^ Douglas Fraser (18 October 2013). “Shedding gentle on Grangemouth”. BBC. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
^ “Grangemouth dispute: Ineos says petrochemical plant will shut”. BBC Information. 23 October 2013. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
^ “Grangemouth plant shutdown leaves authorities preventing to save lots of 800 jobs”. The Guardian. 23 October 2013. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
^ “Grangemouth dispute: Hopes rise after Unite accepts survival plan”. BBC News. 24 October 2013. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
^ “Grangemouth dispute: Ineos says plant will stay open”. BBC News. 25 October 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2013.