The inter-relation between Fuel and Fire is nearly just like the parable of the Rooster and the Egg. If there was no Fuel, how can fireplace burn, but if there was no fireplace then how can the gasoline alight. Right here too the debate will be limitless aside from the uncontested fact that it is solely by mastering the use of fire that man began his stroll in the direction of civilization. Manufacturing exercise albeit on a tiny localized scale started soon thereafter because the prehistoric precursor of Industrialization. First man started to bake his earthenware like pottery and later bricks to extend their lifespan. Simultaneously, he taught himself to weave and subsequently dye fabrics. Later he learned to smelt various metals from ores resulting in the assorted steel-ages, culminating with the Iron-age; the gateway to modern civilisation.
Progress vs Ecology
The evolution of human civilization and its rising economies was wholly and constantly dependent on fireplace and thereby gasoline. Within the early epochs it was firewood, until man found and began mining coal. And together with this progress began a chain of interrelated causes and results that have modified little over the last 2000 years. Mankind’s progress is dependent on low-cost sources of power or gasoline, however burning of all fuels causes both direct or oblique ecological damage, not to say depletion of energy sources.
The Chinese language learned to make solid iron and steel nearly 2000 years back and their early ironworks used copious amounts of charcoal causing the first systematic massive scale deforestation in recorded historical past. The situation was repeated in seventeenth century England with the appearance of the trendy industrialization when the country’s forest cowl was rampantly depleted, once more for making charcoal for steel foundries. This got here to an finish with the invention of the coking process, the place bituminous coal was devolatilized and sulfur levels lowered to make it suitable for use in Metallurgy. Nevertheless, the injury done; England never recovered her forest cover.
The put up industrialization utilization of coal worldwide took an enormous toll on the environmental with hundreds of thousands of tons of CO2 and particulate matter consisting of soot and ash spewing into the atmosphere yr after 12 months inflicting adversarial climatic effects like smog and acid rains, affecting the well being of hundreds of thousands causing respiratory diseases like asthma, tuberculosis and lung cancer. Mining of coal meanwhile destroyed countryside’s and poisoned numerous rivers, streams and floor water reservoirs.
The arrival of the Petroleum age in the 19th century and its widespread proliferation in the 20th century did little to ease the hostile results of coal and firewood. The former remained the gasoline of alternative of the thermal energy era trade, whereas the exploding population of impoverished nations and the chilly northern international locations continued depleting forests for firewood for cooking and heating.
The Indian State of affairs
India’s industrialization solely began within the late colonial interval and truly took off only after independence. Just like in other nations, it was again coal which was the preferred supply or moderately the only available source of vitality for feeding the industry. Nevertheless, with the rise of her petroleum refining capabilities very quickly there was out there a brand new low-cost fuel: HFO (Heavy Fuel Oil) or Furnace Oil (F.O.) as it is commonly identified. A darkish, thick and really viscous oil resembling bitumen, comprising of the residual waste from the refining process, which wants pre-heating to make it free flowing for pumping, filtration and burning. Nevertheless, it was low-cost, easily accessible and nearly at par with diesel in terms of power yield and really soon it turned the gasoline of selection for burning in industrial furnaces and boilers for many years.
The reign of F.O. as the Industry’s favourite gas temporarily got here to an end within the 2006-12 period. Being certainly one of the primary petroleum products to be de-managed, the Indian oil firms began jacking up its price throughout this period in tandem with the global costs of crude oil and bunker fuel. And very quickly the worth of F.O. turned at par with Diesel and for a short second even exceeded it, thereby causing a mass exodus of users in direction of different fuels.
One among the largest customers of Furnace Oil, the Iron and Steel sector shifted en masse to coal, using it both in a Pulverized kind (PCC) or by putting in coal gasifiers to make producer fuel. The Sugar mills too installed gasifiers to make Bio-mass gasoline from their waste bagasse. Industries having the locational benefit and entry to the Pure gasoline distribution network, began utilizing pure fuel, others shifted to biomass fuels like briquettes or rice husk.
The online results of this unjustified and opportunistic spiking of Furnace Oil costs, was that India now has to exports half of its F.O. manufacturing at low costs, as domestic consumption is just half of the production. In 2013-14, India produced 12,953 thousand MT of FO and consumed only 6,236 thousand MT. ( source – Petroleum Evaluation Cell, Ministry of Petroleum).
Return of the King
Fast-forward to late 2015. The worldwide oil prices, which had been on a downward spiral because the middle of the 12 months, backside out in the direction of the top. The Indian Petroleum trade in an uncharacteristic prudent transfer progressively halves the worth of Furnace Oil to about Rs20 a Litre, again to early 2000s levels. The popular excuse given is that of global oil costs, although the more pragmatic fact points in the direction of huge home stockpiles and low international bunker gas rates.
So as soon as once Inside the tower and packing more F.O. is slowly becomes the preferred industrial fuel with most of its earlier users returning back to using it for its low costs, but with the down facet of again subjecting themselves to all its shortcomings and associated problems. Although its resurgence is an undeniable boon for all, however what should not be forgotten it that continues to be a pretty soiled fossil gasoline both by way of storage and handling in addition to combustion and emissions, particularly when one is pressured to think about the abysmally poor city air quality and pollution ranges within the nation.
The Magic of Water in Fuel
It’s in conditions corresponding to prevalent in the country as we speak when FO-Emulsification can show itself to be the necessity of the hour as it may well provide invaluable help to each the gas users as well because the surroundings.
FO-water emulsification is a globally confirmed technology for processing and enhancing residual oil fuels like F.O., whereby the resultant gasoline supplies higher combustion, improved economic system and cleaner emissions. The means of emulsification entails blending two immiscible liquids like oil and water, whereby one is decreased into microscopic droplets and blended inside the other in such a manner that they by no means separate.
As soon as emulsified, even poor burning fuels like heavy residual oils and refinery residue can combust simply and cleanly with important reduction of smoke and pollutants like NOx (Nitrogen Oxides), PM (Particulate Mater) and CO (Carbon Monoxide) in stack emissions. In purposes like Boilers and Furnaces, water-in-oil Emulsions not solely impact complete combustion but in addition allow for extraordinarily low excess-air ranges, which directly corresponds to discount of waste heat and better power utilizations.
Apart type the various manufacturing industries, utilization of Emulsified HFO also can help convey again online a most of the Combined Cycle Gasoline Turbine based mostly Energy plants, which right now are right this moment either shut-down or working intermittently as a consequence of lack of natural gasoline. With a little bit or no modification, GE’s B & E class and plenty of Siemen’s turbines collection can simply run on HFO. Changing these turbines to hearth Emulsified HFO would take care of most of the issues associated with utilization of heavy oils in Fuel Turbines like soot formation and at the same time remove the necessity of importing costly fuels like LNG as F.O.